Title: Small lakes and ponds as model systems for the analysis of spatial processes
Proponents: Robert Ptacnik (Wasser Cluster Lunz – Biologische Station GmbH, Austria) & Zsófia Horváth (Balaton Limnological Institute, Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary)
Abstract: Spatial processes have traditionally been addresses separately from local dynamics of communities.  However, local community dynamics are directly linked to the interaction of the local species pool with potential invaders from the region. The interplay between local and regional dynamics are particularly relevant for understanding and forecasting the ability of communities in terms of tracking environmental changes in times of global change. This session invites studies address the interplay of local and regional dynamics in small lakes and ponds. Time series analysis at the regional scale are particularly relevant for understanding the coupling of local with regional species pools. We invite presentations on observational studies, experiments (micro- or mesocosms) and modeling studies in order to stimulate exciting discussions.


Title: The role of connectivity in the structure and function of shallow lakes
Proponents: Linda May & Laurence Carvalho (UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology); Nigel Willby (University of Stirling, UK)
Abstract: Connectivity is a quintessential property of aquatic systems because it is the means by which energy, materials and genetic resources move within and between hydrological landscapes (‘hydroscapes’). However, connectivity also exposes fresh waters to threats from multiple stressors that act over a range of spatial and temporal scales. To manage our shallow lakes sustainably into the future, we need a better understanding of how changes in connectivity affect their resilience to stressors such as climate change, pollution and invasion by non-native species. Interactions between connectivity, stressors and ecological response determine the structure, function and biodiversity of shallow lakes. In hydrologically connected systems, changes in connectivity occur when new waterways are created, or barriers are added or removed. In hydrologically unconnected systems, they occur as a result of changes in passive (biological vectors) or active (self generated movement) dispersal. Whatever the process, changes in connectivity affect the resilience of shallow lakes to change, for example by altering their links to the source material required to support recolonization and ecosystem recovery. For this session, we invite contributions that can help us address the following key questions in relation to the sustainable management and protection of our shallow lakes: (i) how can connectivity be measured? (ii) how does connectivity affect the transport of organisms, nutrients and energy across hydroscapes? (ii) how are these relationships altered by different stressors? (iii) how does connectivity influence the way that shallow lakes function and respond to environmental change and/or management interventions? (iv) how should we prioritise reductions in stressors and changes in connectivity to restore or protect biodiversity and ecosystem function?


Title: Zoogeochemistry: The functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes within and across ecosystems
Proponents: Rafael D. Guariento (Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil); Shawn J. Leroux (Memorial University, Canada); Michael J Vanni (Miami University, USA)
Abstract: Emerging ecological theory predicts that animals play an important, but still underappreciated, role in mediating biogeochemical processes such as nutrient recycling within and among ecosystems. Such zoogeochemical effects provide new quantitative insights into how the abundance, diversity, physiology, and movement of animal species across landscapes influence the nature and magnitude of biogeochemical processes.  Ecosystem properties such as food chain length and ecosystem functions such as secondary production and nutrient cycling are often context-dependent, and zoogeochemistry provides an avenue to better understand and predict such dependencies. From an applied perspective, there is growing interest in understanding the impacts of land-use modifications and climate change on ecosystems. For example, how might increases in temperature or land conversion from forest to agriculture influence ecological community composition, water quality or geo- or hydrological processes. However, animal-mediated elemental cycling are rarely considered as part of this framework, even though humans introduce and harvest many animal species. In addition, the effects of animals on the release or translocation of nutrients may depend on ecosystem size, mediating the relative importance of zoogeochemical effects across ecosystems. This thematic section aims to synthesize evidence in predicting and measuring zoogeochemical effects in aquatic environments and their surroundings. We aim to integrate principles from animal physiology and animal movement ecology to study spatial ecosystem functioning, specifically, nutrient cycling, within ecosystems and across landscapes.


Title: Causes and consequences of movement and migration in the waterscape of shallow lakes
Proponent: Lars-Anders Hansson (Dep. of Biology/Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Sweden)
Abstract: Migration is a paramount phenomenon which has been universally recognized and is common across taxa and scales as a response to biotic, as well as abiotic threats and opportunities. Different taxa and individuals respond differently in “the shallow waterscape of fear” and, for example, many phytoplankton taxa are known to adjust their buoyancy to optimize light acquisition, zooplankton migrate both horizontally and vertically and fish perform movements and migrations both within and between lakes. Such movements may not only affect the way we perceive organism distributions, but may also strongly affect ecosystem function and food web interactions in shallow lakes. However, despite their potential importance our knowledge is still elusive regarding causes and consequences of such movements. Therefore, the aim of this thematic session is to advance our knowledge regarding effects of, as well as how and why, organisms at different taxonomic levels move and migrate in the three dimensional waterscape of shallow lakes.


Title: Understanding the role of feedback processes in lake ecosystem dynamics: Theoretical advances
Proponents: Sebastian Diehl and Francisco Vasconcelos (Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Sweden)
Abstract: Ecosystem dynamics are notoriously difficult to predict, because interacting feedback processes will often enhance, buffer or reverse the direct impacts of environmental drivers. While negative feedbacks tend to stabilize ecosystems in a given state, positive feedbacks make ecosystems prone to abrupt state shifts. Typically, because multiple positive and negative feedback processes operate in parallel, their causal contributions to overall system dynamics cannot be understood from observational data alone. Process-based mathematical models offer a powerful tool to overcome this limitation, because the separate functions of each system component can be examined in controlled numerical experiments.
In this session, we aim at highlighting the fundamental role of process-based modeling in advancing our understanding of lake ecosystem dynamics. We illustrate this with our own work exploring how positive feedbacks in the coupling of benthic and pelagic system components can lead to abrupt state shifts along environmental gradients. We invite contributions with a similar focus on a mechanistic understanding of complex feedback dynamics. Contributions can be of three types: pure theoretical work (exploring the feasible), empirical studies that were designed to test process-based theory, or combinations of the two.


Title: Trait variation and the ecology of shallow lakes
Proponents: Steven Declerck (NIOO, The Netherlands) & Luc De Meester (KU Leuven, Belgium)
Abstract: Traits are key to how species respond to environmental change, determine interaction strengths and type among organisms, and are a key determinant of rates of ecosystem processes. Traits are also the common currency linking intra- and interspecific variation to community and ecosystem dynamics, and are therefore central in evolutionary ecology and eco-evolutionary dynamics. In this session we aim to bring together contributions that focus on how trait variation determines population, community and ecosystem ecology of shallow lakes. We welcome a broad range of contributions, e.g. on trait-based ecology, evolutionary ecology, eco-evolutionary dynamics, integrated analysis of intra- and interspecific trait variation, trait-based metacommunity ecology.


Title: Effects of climate change on shallow lakes
Proponents: Sandra Brucet (Universitat de Vic, Spain ) & Erik Jeppesen (Aarhus University, Denmark)
Abstract: Shallow lakes around the world are being affected by climate change, and that includes changes in their physics, chemistry and biology, as well as interactions between their internal compartments and with their surrounding watersheds. The ecological responses of shallow lakes to climate change will become even more pronounced in the future, with continued global warming, increased evapotranspiration, altered patterns of rain and drought, and disrupted or amplified climate teleconnections. The ability of shallow lakes to provide habitat to aquatic species and ecosystem services to society is threatened as lakes diminish in size, become more saline, and/or have highly altered thermal properties. This thematic session welcomes research on how shallow lakes around the world are changing in response to climate warming as well as the expected future changes.


Title: Mitigation of eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs)
Proponents: Vanessa Becker (UFRN, Brazil), Marcelo Manzi Marinho (UERJ, Brazil) and Gang Pan (Nottingham Trent University, UK)
Abstract: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) is one of the detrimental consequences of eutrophication in natural waters, which may pose serious threats to water quality, human and animal health, economic development and ecological function. Many tools have been developed to manage eutrophication and HABs, such as catchment management, physical techniques (flushing, aeration, oxygenation, dredging), geoengineering (chemical coagulants, P-sediment inactivation) and biomanipulation. However, existing technologies are still not satisfactory for the mitigation of such complicated environmental problems. Innovative and integrated principles employing geochemical, microbial, and material science principles are in great demand for pollution control (nutrients, heavy metals, persistent toxic substances, and greenhouse gases) and ecological restoration. This thematic session invites research on advances in restoration of shallow lakes and controlling of HABs, including laboratory experiments, field tests, modelling studies, and management protocols that may contribute to a sustainable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly solution.


Title: Complex responses of aquatic species to contamination of pharmacologically active compounds and their possible role in shallow lake eutrophication
Name: Zsolt Pirger (CER Balaton Limnological Institute, Tihany, Hungary) and Helong Jiang and Leilei Bai (Division of Lake Environment & Engineering Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, China)
Abstract: The generally used wastewater treatment technologies are not or only partly suited to eliminate a series of chemical pollutants, allowing them to enter into the environment meanwhile their physiologically active state is retained. To date, members of the aquatic ecosystem (e.g., cyanobacteria, zooplanktons, molluscs, fish or macrophytes) are constantly being exposed to various chemical pollutants of anthropogenic origin (e.g., pharmacologically active compounds) resulting profound changes of the environment. These modified environment conditions, together with climate changes, induce for example cyanobacterial algal blooms and overgrowth of macrophytes in shallow lakes leading to eutrophication. At the same time, the animals have to adapt to these changes in the lake in order to survive the ecotoxicological effects of disturbing chemical factors. But how are they able to achieve it, and what types of physiological alterations are typical? Furthermore, what could be the fate of active substances in lakes and what may be the cyanobacteria role in these processes? Based on them, the first aim of this thematic session is to introduce the possible fate of pharmacologically active compounds and the exact role of cyanobacteria and organic matters in these processes, furthermore, their interactions in a shallow lake eutrophication. The second aim of this session is to present the various changes at behavioural, cellular or molecular levels in invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic species, following chronic exposition of active substances.


Title: Shallow Lakes in Agricultural Landscapes
Proponent: Maria Boveri (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Abstract: All around the world, shallow lakes and ponds on gentle plains are now surrounded by agricultural land use. The externalities of modern intensive crop and cattle activities impact on these water bodies with excess of fertilizers, pesticides and siltation that can condemn them to hyper eutrophication, deoxigenation, fish kills or clogging. Big differences arise between landscapes where societies want and can regulate what humans do in the watershed, and those where people´s big economic needs threat water quality and ecosystem health.  However, the current valorization of the services that these shallow lakes provide justify our attention, the development of restoration strategies and tools, and better protection policies.


Title: Ecology and management of shallow urban lakes
Proponents: Christina Wyss Castelo Branco (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil); Bernadette Pinel-Alloul (Université de Montreal, Canada); Alessandra Giani (Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil)
Abstract: Shallow urban lakes are important part of the scenery of many cities across the globe and differently from other lakes they usually have more people coming into contact with them. They can be deeply associated with local landscape and are frequently important for aesthetic improvement as well as for preserving local and even regional biodiversity. The frequent existence of eutrophic to hypertrophic conditions in these systems has been a challenge for researchers and local municipalities. This challenge has been occurring in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, and there are comparatively few strategies implemented for management and recovery of these shallow lakes. One of the major tasks relating urban lakes has been to integrate nearby or surrounding resident people for sustainable conservation activities around these ecosystems involving water quality improvement and conservation and/or recovery of the native biota. Overall, our knowledge still has many gaps on the ecology of these varied systems, strategies for their recovery, and on possible local disturbances that are ongoing or will come as result of climate changes. The suggestion for this session is to encourage discussion about these ubiquitous and most often endangered shallow urban lakes.


Title: Linking functional diversity with ecosystem function across landscape scales
Proponents: Ali Ger (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) and Meryem Beklioğlu (METU, Turkey)
Abstract: The study of functional traits and their diversity is increasingly popular in aquatic ecology. Yet, we are still far from using such traits to predict energy flow and nutrient cycling. This is, at least partly, due to a diverse set of traits, some of which are difficult to asses or compare across species (e.g., herbivory vs. omnivory, predator escape). Moreover, local adaptation may selectively alter certain traits (e.g., size, stoichiometry, tolerance) but not others (e.g., grazing mode, reproduction) within a given species. Finally, there may not yet be enough information to complete a trait-based study of trophic interactions. When can functional traits be used to predict ecosystem function? What is the role of phytoplankton, zooplankton and other taxonomic groups traits on stoichiometry, respiration, or trophic transfer efficiency? Do specific traits correspond to specific trophic interactions? How to link pattern with process using a trait based approach?  We invite those interested in shedding light on these knowledge gaps to participate with data from theoretical, experimental, or monitoring studies.


Title: Biodiversity and functional stability linkages under changing disturbance regimes
Proponents: Pablo Urrutia Cordero (Uppsala University, Sweden ); Miriam Gerhard; Maren Striebel (Institute for Chemistry and Biology of Marine Environments (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany)
Abstract: Shallow lakes are recipient of diverse environmental disturbances, either natural or driven by humans. The current functioning of the global climate and biogeochemical cycles are however causing profound changes in disturbance regimes, such that they show different frequencies, durations, intensities or spatial extents. This has recently revived significant scientific interest into how such evolving disturbance regimes affect biodiversity and also how biodiversity itself affects the stability of ecosystem functions. This session aims to gather most recent theoretical and empirical studies that investigate how changes in disturbance regimes impact lake biodiversity (e.g., taxonomic, functional traits, genetic), and how these effects are reflected in different functional stability aspects. We also strongly encourage studies assessing drivers that interact with diversity to stabilize communities and ecosystem functions across temporal and spatial scales (e.g., spatial connectivity or legacy effects). The session is ultimately intended to promote discussions and interactions among researchers in order to provide with a synthetic overview of current knowledge and research gaps on how biodiversity drives the ecological stability and functioning of shallow lakes under changing environments.


Title: Fishing in lake systems: problems and solutions
Proponents: Priscila Lopes (UFRN, Brazil) & Leandro Castello (Virginia Tech, USA)
Abstract: Lakes are an important source of fish around the globe, including developing and developed countries. Yet, lake fishing receives considerably less attention from governments and decision makers, despite the fact that, similar to what has happened in the oceans, they have been amply overfished. Solutions to address the ecological and economic consequences of lake overfishing and habitat degradation range from promoting stock enhancement and recreational fishing initiatives to pond aquaculture, which can cause additional environmental and social problems. We invite researchers working on different lake systems, subject to various impacts (aquaculture, hydroelectric dams, deforestation, pollution and overfishing, etc.) to provide an overview of large-scale issues, to identify commonalities within and across regions, and potential solutions related to lake fishing that can potentially be replicated in different parts of the globe.


Title: Biological invasions in shallow lakes
Proponents: Roger P. Mormul (UEM, Brazil) & Bruno R. S. Figueiredo (UFSC, Brazil)
Abstract: The proposed session will deal with biological invasions in different ecological levels of organizations, also considering a variety of concepts related to predation, competition, herbivory and other factors affecting the establishment and persistence of invasive species in shallow lakes. This topic is quite timely because climate change has been linked to species expansion and contractions of species ranges, significantly impacting the biodiversity and ecology of invaded areas.


Title: Fishponds: ecology, biogeochemistry and areal extend
Name: Sarian Kosten (Radboud University, The Netherlands), Ernandes Sobreira (UNEMAT, Brazil) & Nathan Barros (UFJF, Brazil)
Abstract: Although the exact areal extend of fishponds is unknown, it is clear that their number and thereby their footprint on the landscape is booming worldwide. Despite their high and increasing abundance, these special type of ‘shallow ponds’ have received relatively little attention from limnologists. In this session we welcome scientist working on (micro)ecology and biogeochemistry in fishponds as well as on their impact on downstream waters. In addition, we welcome scientist working on assessing the areal extent of the ponds, for instance using remote sensing.


Title: Implication of resting forms to metacommunity dynamics on permanent and temporary shallow systems
Proponents: Carlos Iglesias Frizzera (UDELAR, Uruguai); Claudia Bonecker (UEM, Brazil) & Eneida Eskinazi Sant´Anna (UFOP, Brazil)
Abstract: The production of resting stages is a common feature in many aquatic groups. From an ecological point of view, these structures are an adaptation for populations to survive adverse environmental conditions, avoid local extinction and spread their populations. The cumulative production of resting stages leads to a “dormant egg bank” in the lake sediments, which is very important for dispersal as well as influence the future time and spatial dynamics of pelagic populations. Moreover, colonization of a local community can occur from dormant stages, not just from other habitat patches, as is commonly assumed in metacommunity theory. Since local and regional scale processes has yet not been thoroughly incorporated into metacommunity ecology we invite works that could promote the discussion and aim to elucidate how colonization from the seed bank contribute to observed biodiversity patterns in both permanent and temporary ecosystems, across different spatial and temporal scales.


Title: Macrophyte-plankton interactions in shallow waterbodies
Proponents: S. Nandini & S.S.S. Sarma (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: Macrophytes are diverse, and often dense, in many shallow lakes. In tropical and subtropical lakes they grow throughout the year whereas in temperate and arctic water bodies they are frozen in winter. Plankton species richness is often high in these habitats as these plants provide substrata and refuge against predation by vertebrates and invertebrates. The effectiveness of macrophytes as refuge depends on the structure of their stems and roots. There are also a few studies that report allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and phytoplankton. During this special session we hope to get more quantitative information on the species richness and abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton associated with macrophytes in shallow lakes from different waterbodies in tropical and temperate regions. We also discuss the problems associated with quantifying plankton and predators from these habitats and the importance of macrophytes in improving water quality, directly by decreasing nutrient concentrations and indirectly by providing refuge to large, generalist filter feeders such as cladocerans, amphipods and ostracods.


Title: The future of shallow lakes in the Anthropocene: are we going towards the Homogocene?
Proponents: Luis Artur Valões Bezerra and Jan Kubecka (Institute of Hydrobiology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic) & André Andrian Padial (UFPR, Brazil)
Abstract: Environmental policies underlie ecology, management, and the economy of aquatic ecosystems in the XXI century. While environmental alterations have made humans the most important species in the globe, climate change and biotic homogenization initiated a new era, the Anthropocene. Still, economic progress rules the global agenda, and conservation strategies are often not backed in science. Several authors pointed out the influence of humans while shaping biodiversity in aquatic environments, highlighting damming and invader species. Our aim with this thematic session is to discuss the effects of multiple stressors on shallow lakes around the world, such as climate change, pollution, environmental deterioration and resource utilization.


Title: Shallow saline lakes in the World of changes
Proponent: Nickolai Shadrin (Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Russia)
Abstract: Shallow saline lakes are important landscape components playing a significant natural role and having high value for humans. They are very variable due to climate change and anthropogenic interventions in lakes and their watersheds and may be in different alternative strates. What are pecularities of their transformations? Are there strategies to conserve and sustainably use of them in the current changeable world?


Title: Ecology of temporary ecosystems
Proponents: Luciana Gomes Barbosa (UFPB, Brazil); Clarice Casa Nova (UFRJ, Brazil) & Reinaldo Luiz Bozelli (UFRJ, Brazil)
Abstract: Global climate change is expected to intensify droughts, a critical filter to the biodiversity and food web structure in temporary systems around the world. The prolonged droughts may promote a general decrease in ecosystem resilience and changes in energy flow and trophic interactions. Due to limited knowledge of the ecosystem functions regulating energy flow and matter cycling, research still falls short in bridging the gap to assure proper management and conservation strategies of these temporary lakes, wetlands, small wetlands, rock pools, man-made reservoirs and streams. Since these temporary ecosystems are a source of several environmental services to human societies, the knowledge about their ecology is critical to draw effective conservation strategies. This special session will bring together specialists in the ecology of temporary ecosystems around the world to present and discuss results of experimental and field observations in the face of the huge challenge which is to understand the effects of different impacts (such as climate change and land use) in these ecosystems.